Diseases and effects on humans.
Drowning is defined as death from suffocation due to being submerged in water. There are two classifications of drowning. Wet and dry. In the case of wet drowning, the person has inhaled water that interferes with breathing and causes circulation to collapse. In the less common case of drowning on land, the airway is closed due to constriction in the presence of water. Near drowning can lead to nerve damage, and successful recovery depends on prompt rescue and resuscitation.
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In children, an error in adult supervision is the most important contributing cause of drowning. Children can drown not only in lakes, seas, etc. Children with some swimming skills can get in trouble if they try to be more active than they are capable of. Or if the child is hurt by unsafe behavior in the water.
Drinking alcohol before swimming or falling is a common contributing factor to drowning in children and adolescents in many countries. Failure to use life jackets has been linked to drowning accidents involving the use of yachts, boats and canoes.
In open water, whirlpool tubs, spas and such attached recreation areas, a wide range of scenarios can play out. Strong suction on swimming pool inlets and outlets can entangle body parts or hair and keep the victim’s head underwater, causing drowning. The clarity of the water in the pool can also be a factor. In cloudy water, lifeguards may not be able to identify someone who needs help. Overcrowded swimming areas also have a similar problem.
Scope of the problem
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Information on drowning is not uniformly collected in all countries but according to the global burden of disease. The overall death rate from drowning is estimated at 8.4 per 100 000 population. Drowning information includes accidental drowning as well as those caused by intentional acts such as suicide and homicide. Men and children are disproportionately represented in the drowning statistics. Among children 5 to 14 years old, drowning is the fourth leading cause of death. While for children under 5 it was the 11th.
Among children aged 5-14, drowning is the leading cause of death. The higher risk in men is attributed to greater recreational and occupational exposure to the risk of drowning. Among adults aged 15 to 44, drowning is the 10th leading cause of death.
Teaching children and adults to swim is an important intervention in preventing drowning. Education about the risks of swimming in specific conditions is also essential to reduce the risk of drowning.
Other interventions include:
- Do not swim beyond the technical level.
- Uninterrupted continuous adult supervision of children around all forms of water including open bodies of water and buckets,…
- Never swim alone or in unsupervised places. Teach children to always swim with friends.
- Lifeguards on duty at public swimming areas.
- Inflatable life jacket for children and adults with low swimming skills. When bathing or swimming in open water.
- Refrain from drinking alcohol before and after swimming.
- Ensure that intakes in swimming pools, hot tubs, and spas are securely constructed and maintained at a safe level.
- Ensure the presence and choose a safety fence for the swimming pool .
- Full rescue assistance on board boats and ships, crew training in rescue procedures and clear communication to passengers.
- Learn CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation). This is especially important for pool owners and individuals who regularly participate in water recreation.
- Check the water depth before entering.