The starting point is the starting point of the swimming competition, which is part of the course of the competition. Especially in today’s competition, the order of more and less is every hundredth of a second, so this technique is even more important and is constantly being improved and developed.


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The starting techniques in swimming 

There are two types of starts on the platform (butterfly, stroke , breaststroke, individual medley, freestyle relay) and water starts (backstroke, first backstroke in medley) .

Techniques of starting on the podium 

Start swinging your arms 

There are five stages: preparing, jumping, flying in the air, entering the water, surfing.

1. Prepared Pose

Two parallel feet hip-width apart, the soles of the toes clinging to the top edge of the starting platform, knees slightly bent, hips bent, body almost parallel to the water. Hands stretched straight down behind, eyes tilted forward. The center of gravity falls on the front edge of the platform and midway between the legs. This preparatory pose creates static tension for the extensors of the thighs, buttocks, and back.

2. Jump up and down

Bend your knees, jump your legs, swing your arms, and keep your body level with the water. The effectiveness of this move depends on three points:

– Elbow movement and effective stretching: Before jumping, you should bend your knees quickly to lower your body. Lowers the fulcrum face, causing the fulcrum to lose weight. At the same time, thanks to the stretching of the body, it changes the state of static force, which is beneficial for the operation of the gluteal muscles, quadriceps, and small head triangle. When the joints of the hips, knees, and ankles reach the right angle, they suddenly stop to step on the platform. Thus, taking advantage of the kinetic energy when the body is lowered and the power of the foot pedal to combine with the great power of kicking the platform.

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– The right angle when pedaling and stretching: Pedal stretching is the main thing, but it needs to be combined with body movements. To form a force synthesis according to the structure of the hip, knee, and ankle joints, which forms the conjugate angle of the bones to directly control the direction of contraction and the efficiency of the muscle groups. Therefore, proper body posture is important. For promoting muscle strength and speed. The quadriceps muscle plays a major role in the knee extension. Starting at the knee angle should be from 120 – 130 degrees and effectively reaching an angle of about 110 – 120 degrees in the starting way when swimming.

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– The combination of swinging arms and kicking legs: The swinging movement increases the strength of the foot to kick back. There are two ways of handshake:

  • Before jumping, stretch your arms forward and back until you jump, swing your arms down, forward in front of your head. This is the normal starting way.
  • When preparing to jump, arms extend down and forward. When jumping, arms loop forward, up. And back in a circle to the bottom of the head, arms stopping as the foot kicks. Because the large swing amplitude affects the jumping speed, it is often used in starting in contact swimming.

3. Fly in the air

The movement in the air depends on the movement in the water, so when flying in the air, there is a need to change the body so that the body from the head position is higher than the feet when bouncing off the starting platform, flipping down into a low head position. feet when entering the water.

4. Starting water technique in swimming

The body posture depends on the depth of the plunge when entering the water and the position of flying in the air. Enter the water in a straight line diagonally down the water with the order of fingers, arms, head, body, legs.

5. Surfing the water

The human god has a certain amount of muscle tension to keep the body in a diamond shape to surf the water. Use your hands to control the depth when surfing. When the water surfing speed is approximately the swimming speed, start performing the movement according to the competition rules of each swimming style.

Technical instructions for starting and sticking to the podium 

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Based on how to hold the platform, it is divided into two types of starting from the platform and starting from sitting down.

The technique of starting from the platform has four stages: preparing, jumping, flying in the air, entering the water and surfing.

1. Prepared Pose 

There are three ways to cling to the platform: clinging to the front platform, clinging to the platform next to the platform, and clinging to the side of the platform with the body forward. The difference between these three types is that they start to jump: when they stick to the front, they rely on pushing their hands, when they cling to the side of the platform, they rely on pulling their hands. Two parallel feet hip-width apart, toes clinging to the edge of the starting platform, knees slightly bent, body bent forward, close to thighs. The point of falling of the body’s center of gravity is at the front edge or off the starting platform, with both hands on the platform to keep the body still.

2. Jump up and down

Bend your head, pull your arms, stretch your knees so that your body falls forward, followed by bending your knees to let go of your hands so that your body does not press on your thighs. When the knees and ankles reach the correct angle, quickly extend the ankle joint and swing the arms to extend the hip joint. Make the stretching force along with the foot pedal force form a combined force acting on the platform. The feature of this swimming starting technique is that the center of gravity falls straight forward without having to bend the knees like a swing. But you have to lower the center of gravity before falling, although the jumping angle is small, the jumping speed is faster.

3. Fly in the air

Due to the strong pedal force, the moving trajectory of the center of gravity has a relatively horizontal direction, so the flight time is short, the arm swings forward to below the head, then stops, lowers the head, and squeezes the abdomen to enter the water.

4. Enter the water and surf

The body in the water needs to be stretched straight, with certain muscle tension to keep the body in a diamond shape to surf the water. Due to the small jump angle and strong pedaling force, the body is not deep into the water, glides quickly and briefly, and emerges quickly. When the water surfing speed is approximately the swimming speed, start performing the movement according to the competition rules of each swimming style. This technique is suitable for a short freestyle start.

Starting technique in swimming (sitting kneeling)

It’s almost like the start in short distance running in athletics. There are three stages: preparing posture, jumping, flying in the air and entering the water.

1. Prepared Pose

Stand with your foot in front of your back foot, your strong foot clinging to the top edge of the starting line, and your hands on the front platform.

2. Jump up and down

Both hands push into the front edge of the starting platform, the back foot kicks back, letting go of the arms to swing forward. As the body moves away from the platform, the front foot kicks hard against the edge of the platform to increase the forward speed. The key to this style is that the front foot doesn’t kick the platform too soon. Because this will increase the center of gravity and reduce the forward impulse force.

3. Fly in the air and enter the water

After leaving the platform, the legs are closed to fly in the air and into the water. When surfing, the body has a certain muscle tension to keep the body in a diamond shape to surf the water. When the water surfing speed is approximately the swimming speed, start performing the movement according to the competition rules of each swimming style.

Starting technique in swimming (watercourse)

When entering the water, the face of the hands, head, spine, and thighs are relatively small, like entering a cave. This technique of entering the water in this swimming starting way is fast, gliding fast and far. There are five stages:

1. Prepared Pose 

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Similar to the starting technique in platform swimming, the jump angle is larger, the swinging arm is faster. This starting position requires that when jumping, the body after falling forward, at the same time open the hip joints to reach the necessary jumping angle.

2. Jump up and down 

Jumping movements need to create conditions for flying in the air. The body when flying in the air has to adjust its posture, so in addition to increasing the angle of the jump, the power to kick the platform and bounce first must also increase.

3. Fly in the air 

Adjusting the flying position in the air is the key to the technique. After flying in the air, the body does not change the trajectory of the center of gravity. But it is possible to change the position into the water, to ensure that the body enters the water at one point. The longitudinal axis of the body when entering the water coincides with the angle of entry into the water.

Technical instructions for starting in backstroke

The law stipulates that the start of the backstroke must be done in the water, and the body must be in the supine position.

There are five stages: preparatory position, prep, jump, air and water, water surfing, and first swim.

1. Prepared Pose 

Body in the water, face facing the lake wall, two hands holding forward or backward to the starting ladder, pulling hands, elbows straight, head bowed, body mounds, legs and thighs pressed together. Feet equal to or lower than the water surface, feet parallel or slightly offset clinging to the pool wall . The buttocks and thighs are submerged in the water, the whole body relaxes and waits for the signal to start.

2. Prepare to jump 

When there is a signal in place, the two hands bend the elbows, pull the body high above the water, lower the head, keep the body, the knees are slightly separated, lift the buttocks out of the water to reduce the resistance when jumping.

There are two types of starting techniques in swimming (backstroke)

  • When there is a command to enter, lift and pull the body up to wait for the starting signal: There is enough time to do the preparation. And adjust the proper pedaling position of the thighs, stretch the legs and feet. But it’s easy to be influenced by signal spacing that affects pedaling efficiency in the jump.
  • After receiving the new signal, lift the body up. At the same time, continue to pedal to jump. This method is beneficial for extensor muscle groups when jumping, but will be delayed.

3. Jump up and down

Kneeling preparation: Before jumping, prepare to squat and then jump.

Jumping: From the preparation movement, push and pull with both hands downwards or inwards. Then swing your arms upwards or sideways, and at the same time kick your feet to jump. The swinging movement helps to increase the power to kick the lake wall. It is beneficial to control the angle of jumping to create a good posture in the air and into the water. There are two ways to swing your arms:

  • Pull the hand down; swing your arms up and forward at the same time as your body leans back. Suitable for early and high bouncers.
  • With both hands grasping, pressing inward, swinging the arms horizontally to the sides forward and then close above the head. Suitable for slow jumpers and low water jumpers.

4. Fly in the air and into the water (starting technique in swimming)

When preparing, exhale completely, when jumping, inhale deeply. After leaving the lake, the body holds the posture of stretching the chest and abdomen, tilting the head back, the body is arched. Flying in the air has to lift your butt out of the water to reduce drag.

5. Surfing and first swimming moves

After entering the water, the body straightens with both arms folded in front of the head. To control the depth and direction of surfing. When the speed of surfing decreases, slam your feet and when your face is out of the water, do the first hand stroke.

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